Monthly Archives: November 2014

Best 10 Venues to see a Live Show

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The Gorge Amphitheatre, George, WA

The Gorge is considered one of the most scenic concert locations in the world. The venue offers sweeping and majestic views of the Columbia River. Upcoming shows @http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/gorge-amphitheatre/George

Red Rocks Amphitheatre, Colorado

Red Rocks is a rock structure near Morrison, Colorado. There is a large, tilted, disc-shaped rock behind the stage, a huge vertical rock angled outwards from stage right, several large outcrops angled outwards from stage left and a seating area for up to 9,450 people in between. Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/red-rocks-amphitheatre/Morrison

Hearst Greek Theatre, Berkeley

The style of the theater is based on the ancient Greek theater of Epidaurus. The outdoor venue is becoming a top place to experience some of the Biggest names in music. Upcoming shows @http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/greek-theater/Berkeley

Severance Hall, Cleveland

Located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio, Severance hall has been the home of the Cleveland Orchestra since its opening on February 5, 1931. The Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Upcoming shows @http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/severance-hall1/Cleveland

Billy Bob’s Texas

Billy Bob’s is a popular country & western nightclub in the Fort Worth Stockyards, Texas. It promotes itself as “The World’s Largest Honky Tonk”. In addition to several dance floors, musical stages, arcade games, and billiards tables, Billy Bob’s is the home to a small indoor rodeo arena.Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/billy-bobs-texas/fort-worth

The Troubadour, West Hollywood

The Troubadour was a major center for folk music in the 1960s, and subsequently for singer-songwriters and rock. It played an important role in the careers of many prominent and successful performers, who played performances there establishing their future fame. Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/troubadour/west-Hollywood

The Fillmore, San Francisco

The Fillmore is a historic music venue in San Francisco, made famous by Bill Graham. It is known as a hot spot with frequent shows. The Fillmore is also well known for its psychedelic concert posters by artists. Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/the-fillmore12/san-Francisco

NorVa, Norfolk, VA

The NorVa building is often noted by its patrons to be charming and aesthetically pleasing due to its rustic and old-style appearance. Many bands have regarded the NorVa as one of the best venues in the United States, due not only to its great sound and intimate setting, but also to its many backstage amenities. Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/the-norva/norfolk

Ryman Auditorium, Nashville

Ryman Auditorium (formerly Grand Ole Opry House and Union Gospel Tabernacle) is a live performance venue in Nashville and is best known as the most famous home of the Grand Ole Opry. Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/ryman-auditorium/nashville

Bluebird Café, Nashville

The Bluebird Café is famous for intimate, acoustic music performed by its composers. Some performers are established singer/songwriters, and others perform hit songs written by other artists. At fifteen years old, young singer/songwriter Taylor Swift was discovered at the Bluebird Café. Upcoming shows @ http://www.eventsfy.com/venue/the-bluebird-cafe/nashville

Why Conservatism Isn’t Right for America

 

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by Richard Saunders – November 28, 2014 (opinions expressed don’t necessary represent eventsfy views)
Opening Argument

Every great movement forward throughout history has been an immense struggle.  And at the very root of every movement forward throughout history, it has been the Idea of Progress.  The Idea of Progress isn’t—by definition—more government.  In fact, progress could mean less government. Progressivism (the Idea of Progress) is the theory that advances in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.1 The Idea of Progress is based on five guiding values—value of the past, worth of economic and technological growth, faith in reason and scientific knowledge, intrinsic worth of life on earth, and nobility of Western civilization.1

Progressivism believes we can become happier by improving quality of life (social progress), economic development (modernization), and the application of science and technology (scientific progress). The assumption is that this process will happen once people apply their reason and skills, for it is not divinely foreordained. The role of the expert is to identify hindrances that slow or neutralize progress.

Progressivism gained prominence during the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, but the Idea of Progress has defined Western civilization for three thousand years.1 Some scholars consider the Idea of Progress as a secularization of ideas from early Christianity and a reworking of ideas from ancient Greece.  Charles Darwin’s (1809–82) theory of evolution by natural selection made progress a necessary law of nature and gave the Idea of Progress doctrine its first scientific formulation.1

We must understand that Progressivism—learning from the past on how to perpetually create a better future—should always be the main objective of our federal government and society.  And we must understand that Conservatism—which greatly values established and traditional practices in politics and society, and which greatly dislikes change or new ideas3—shouldn’t ever be the main objective of a federal government and society. Conservative Ideology, at its essence, seeks to preserve things as they are—emphasizing stability and continuity—and many times seeks a return to “the way things were.”4 Therefore, we can easily conclude that Conservatism—at its roots—is anti-progress.  So let’s review how the Idea of Progress—not Conservative Ideology—has continuously succeeded with providing us a better tomorrow throughout history.  In fact, Conservatism often has been a great hindrance to our progress.

We must follow science—not entrenched traditions

Who were the people initially against the idea that the earth was round and not flat ?  Conservatives.  Who were the people initially against the idea that the sun was the center of our universe and not the earth?  Conservatives.  Who were the people initially (and some still are) against the idea of natural selection (evolution)?  Conservatives.  Who were the people initially (and some still are) against the idea that the earth is much older than thousands of years?  Conservatives.  And who are the people that still adamantly oppose the idea that humans contribute to the earth getting warmer?  Conservatives.  History has clearly shown us—beyond any reasonable doubt—that Conservatism has been an immense impediment at almost every major scientific breakthrough.

Evolution of our democratic government

The changing from a monarch/dictatorship government to a democratic government was a progressive idea—not a conservative one.  Conservatism–-remember—looks to its past traditions and culture to solve current problems, because past traditions were successful answering past problems.  When we decided to change from being a British colony to becoming an independent and sovereign nation—this was a radical and progressive idea.  If you fervently believe in The U.S. Constitution and The Declaration of Independence, then you must understand that these revolutionary and inspired works were progress—inspired from earlier works and ideology (such as the Bible, the Magna Carta, past democracies, past writers, past philosophers, the British Common Law, and many others). Our forefathers didn’t come up with all these brilliant and enlightened governing principles themselves—although they were indeed remarkably brilliant and enlightened.  The point here is that we have created a far-superior and better government today by learning and improving upon past governments—not by re-establishing a past government.

Perpetual improvements to our democratic systems

Any new type of system within our government is Progressivism because it changes the status quo (i.e. not conservative).  The changing from a barter-and-trade system to a currency system for trading everything was absolutely a progressive idea.  The changing from a feudal system to a free-market (for-profit) system—along with the creation of the stock market—was absolutely a progressive idea.  The changing from an agricultural to an industrial to a technology-based economy was absolutely a progressive idea.  Evidence-based improvements to our current systems with the creation of the Federal Reserve, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, United Nations are all absolutely progressive ideas that have helped our country and world in immeasurable ways.

Amendments to The U.S. Constitution (and most laws)—propel us closer to a more perfect union

Amendments to The U.S. Constitution have morally and permanently propelled our country towards the original intent of The U.S. Constitution.  The following progressive laws—none which were conservative—include passing of the 13th Amendment of The U.S. Constitution, which abolished slavery (not originally a conservative idea); passing of the 15th Amendment of The U.S. Constitution, which gave blacks the right to vote (not originally a conservative idea); passing of the 19th amendment, which gave woman the right to vote (not originally a conservative idea); passing of the Civil Rights Law, which helped to desegregate the segregated South (not a conservative idea); passing of the 26th Amendment, which allowed 18-year-olds to vote (not a conservative idea); and the passing of many other law.  The Civil Rights Law—along with all these other Amendments to The U.S. Constitution—inarguably changed our society for the better.  Perhaps not so much with just the statutory law being passed through Congress and signed by President Lyndon Johnson, but more importantly with tangibly changing society’s perceptions towards race—because if the Civil Rights Law were repealed today, there would most likely be only a few businesses in the South that would actually revert back to segregating their customers.

Government-created services (Technology/Education and Welfare)—should always be temporary
Technological and Educational programs

Government-created services are always progressive—not conservative.  Government-created services, however, should only be temporary until the private sector can adequately provide these services to the public.  With that said, government-created services have provided so many positive benefits to our Great Nation yet today so many people believe as religious doctrine that our government has no role with progressing our society forward—this is fundamentally incorrect.  In America’s brief history, our government was instrumental with creating our railroads, our roadways, our universities, our utilities (hydro/nuclear electricity, telephone lines, internet, mobile technology from satellites, space travel, and the most advanced weaponry ever conceived).  All these undeniably successful government-created services have propelled our society forward positively.  And as with so many of these government-created services, our government continuously steps aside and allows the free-market to take over these services when it has the capacity to do so (i.e. railroad, building roads, energy, telephones, mobile technology, Internet technology, space travel, etc.).  Contrary to the pervading myth in our society, the American private sector is growing far faster than the American Federal Government and continuously provides services that were once provided by the federal government.  After countless immensely successful government-created services, why now do so many Americans incorrectly believe that our government doesn’t still have a constructive role to play?

Welfare programs

All the above government-created services are widely accepted to have been appropriate and were the right things to do.  Unlike the above mentioned government-created services, government-created services of welfare (social programs) are contentiously debated.  But empirical evidence still clearly shows us the huge positive impact these welfare programs have had on our Great Nation.  These progressive social programs include Social Security (imagine the poverty of our elderly without Social Security); The GI Bill (arguably the most influential Bill passed to improve our middle class—providing college education and business start-up benefits to our veterans); Medicare, Medicaid, and now Obamacare (health care should absolutely be a right for the richest developed country in the world); Urban-housing development; food stamps; and other welfare programs (can anyone really argue intelligently that the poor would be better off without these programs?).  As our free-market continues to grow with evermore capacity to provide needed services to our society, we may not need any more government-social programs.  And once our society finds a way to increase wages and revert back to full employment, so many of these social programs just go away and disappear.  Eventually, as our country continues to prosper—like it always has—these programs do go away.  Hence these social programs are and should be only temporary.  But that doesn’t negate the fact that these social programs have provided so much help to countless individuals who really needed the help—like we all need from time to time.

Conclusions
Progress through smart governance

In the past our federal government has helped to teach our society right from wrong by implementing laws to combat wrongs—i.e. Emancipation Proclamation, Abolishing Slavery, Woman’s Suffrage, Civil Rights Law, Gay Rights, and others.  Today, the American government has taken the military option off the table with Russia over its dispute with Ukraine, and is establishing new precedencies on how the world should engage with its enemies—not militarily anymore but economically and ideologically. This is good because it reduces world stress of potential military war with a major foe

Progressivism uses government—not just the free market—to push society forward positively, because progress happens more efficiently and effectively this way than progress without the use of government.  History tells us that major leaps in progress (advancement in technology, science, living conditions, etc.) has happened under strong central governments–-i.e. Greeks, Romans, Persians, Ottoman, England, America, etc.  And sometimes smart governance and progress is regulating certain industries of the private sector.  Some examples:

President Theodore Roosevelt said that “great corporations are creatures of the state and the state not only has the right to control them but is in duty bound to control them wherever need of control is shown.  Regulations are needed when major problems arise from business conduct (financial calamities, air/water/food pollution, widespread business malpractices, etc.).  However, after federal regulations are implemented, they should be removed once an industry successfully proves to society that it can prudently and appropriately regulate itself.  The federal government should be the people’s conscience to help guide the free-market system to an ever-more prosperous state.

After the Great Depression of 1929 when 80 percent of the stock-market value evaporated, the unemployment rose to 24.1 percent, and our country’s Gross-National Product decreased in half, 5 President Franklin D. Roosevelt was able to understand and see clearly that a collective external force (the government) could, in fact, help guide our free-market system when the private sector fails our society with its booms and busts.  FDR so eloquently said during the Great Depression, “I paint the one-third despair in our nation so that we all can see that we can collectively with government paint it out.”  Therefore, FDR correctly believed that people who could see the problems could figure out how better to solve the problems.  Therefore, government obviously has a role to assist us forward—we just need to continuously debate what that government role is.  And that’s exactly what many Americans are doing today—albeit quite ungracefully.

Conservatism is not the path forward

The main problem with Conservatism is that it essentially believes only past generations had the knowledge and capacity to create a better society—why?  Most of us are nostalgic of the past but conservatives are just much more nostalgic of the past. Conservatives are against change—that’s the fundamental definition of a conservative: one who believes the past had the best ways.  Throughout history, conservatives have been against progress with science, the evolution of governments, improvements to our systems, new laws, and new government-created services and social-welfare programs. Therefore, it has taken much longer for past successes and acknowledgments to prevail as obviously right and correct.  Conservatives don’t understand that we have been constantly building upon prior successes since the beginning of time.

To better understand why Conservatism isn’t the correct pathway forward for America or the world, take a minute to record your feelings or perspective of the conservatives of other countries. Who are the conservatives of Russia?  Putin and his ilk who want to revert back to the Soviet Union and are the biggest enemies of America.  Who are the conservatives of Iran?  The Ayatollah and the Old Guard, who both adamantly oppose change and who both are the biggest enemies of America.  Who are the conservatives of China or North Korea?  The most traditionalists that oppose change.  It’s the conservatives in other countries that Americans have the most problems with. And it’s the American conservatives that foreigners—including the majority of Americans—have the most problems with.  Shouldn’t this tell us something?  Why is it so difficult for conservatives to understand they’re so wrong on so many things?

Progressivism always does win eventually—Conservatism always does lose eventually.  Progressivism believes diversity is for the better—Conservatism is not convinced of this.  Conservatism, however, absolutely plays a constructive role in preventing our Great Nation from implementing any ill-conceived policy.  Every new policy idea—especially today—has to have overwhelming public support before it can be implemented into law because conservatives so rightly revere the past.  Conservatives are so afraid to implement any new policy into law—fearing policy changes make things worse.  This entrenched Conservative Ideology in America is definitely inhibiting our federal government from making any progress.  Every country has conservatives that undeniably hinder their countries’ progress as seen in China, Iran, Russia, Saudi Arabia, etc.  However, these same conservatives do prevent their countries from changing too quickly, which could potentially have devastating consequences to a country’s cultural and traditional systems as we’ve witnessed in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Egypt, etc.

Progressivism Principles

We are all the sum product of past humans and their achievements (creation of language, ideology, information, science, education, governing systems, etc.). Therefore, we should all be extremely thankful for all the past progress and achievements for which our forefathers worked so very hard—providing us today with so many more opportunities and blessings.  From nothing to a single cell to a multi-cell organism to eventually a human, reveals to us just how powerful nurture (environment) has had and will always have on us.

We all must understand that we really just need to build upon prior successes—this is Progressivism.  We are not asking for any revolution here, we are asking for you to do only your duty—as an American endowed with its great history and riches—to help progress our society forward.  Be more engaged within the American political system—educate and learn about the issues that matter so that you can help make a difference.  We have many problems that America faces today, and America needs help from its citizens to help her perpetually progress. Be blessed and build upon all of our past progress that we’re so fortunate to enjoy now. We have to respect our ancestors for what they’ve built and we have to have prudence for our heirs for what they will inherit.

As stated earlier, the Idea of Progress is based on five guiding values—value of the past, worth of economic and technological growth, faith in reason and scientific knowledge, intrinsic worth of life on earth, and nobility of Western civilization.  Through evermore evidence, we can conclude that the fundamental principles of these five guiding values of Progressivism are accountability (personal responsibility), empathy, fairness, faith, free-will, integrity, reason, service, and transparency. If we all follow these principles, we will achieve great progress in America and the world—this is each of our duty.

Free-will (free market)—increases innovation and creativity

Fairness of laws—reduces conflicts and improves performance because more people buy into the system

Service or work—improves the quality of life for someone or many people

Transparency—decreases suspicions of others so that more work can get done

Accountability of ourselves (personal responsibility)—decreases dependencies on the government

Empathy of others—increases understanding of others so that win/win compromises can be reached

Faith that we perpetually progress—increases our hopes, which decreases are fears, which increases progress

Integrity of ourselves—increases right, which makes might

Reason—decreases emotions from clouding our judgments and actions

 

Citations
  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressivism
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idea_of_Progress
  3. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/conservatism
  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism
  5. http://www.shmoop.com/great-depression/economy.html

Spotlight: Louis Armstrong (learn more of this American treasure)

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Louis Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and an influential figure in jazz music.

Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an “inventive” trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. With his instantly recognizable gravelly voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes. He was also skilled at scat singing (vocalizing using sounds and syllables instead of actual lyrics).

Renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice almost as much as for his trumpet-playing, Armstrong’s influence extends well beyond jazz music, and by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was widely regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first truly popular African-American entertainers to “cross over”, whose skin color was secondary to his music in an America that was severely racially divided. He rarely publicly politicized his race, often to the dismay of fellow African-Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation during the Little Rock Crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him socially acceptable access to the upper echelons of American society that were highly restricted for a black man.

Early Life

Armstrong was born into a very poor family in New Orleans, Louisiana, the grandson of slaves. He spent his youth in poverty, in a rough neighborhood, known as “the Battlefield”, which was part of the Storyville legal prostitution district. His father, William Armstrong (1881–1922), abandoned the family when Louis was an infant and took up with another woman. His mother, Mary “Mayann” Albert (1886–1927), then left Louis and his younger sister Beatrice Armstrong Collins (1903–1987) in the care of his grandmother, Josephine Armstrong, and at times, his Uncle Isaac. At five, he moved back to live with his mother and her relatives, and saw his father only in parades.

He attended the Fisk School for Boys, where he likely had early exposure to music. He brought in some money as a paperboy and also by finding discarded food and selling it to restaurants, but it was not enough to keep his mother fromprostitution. He hung out in dance halls close to home, where he observed everything from licentious dancing to thequadrille. For extra money he also hauled coal to Storyville, the famed red-light district, and listened to the bands playing in the brothels and dance halls, especially Pete Lala’s where Joe “King” Oliver performed and other famous musicians would drop in to jam.

After dropping out of the Fisk School at age eleven, Armstrong joined a quartet of boys who sang in the streets for money. But he also started to get into trouble. Cornet player Bunk Johnson said he taught Armstrong (then 11) to play by ear at Dago Tony’s Tonk in New Orleans, although in his later years Armstrong gave the credit to Oliver. Armstrong hardly looked back at his youth as the worst of times but instead drew inspiration from it, “Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans… It has given me something to live for.”

He also worked for a Lithuanian-Jewish immigrant family, the Karnofskys, who had a junk hauling business and gave him odd jobs. They took him in and treated him as almost a family member, knowing he lived without a father, and would feed and nurture him.[8] He later wrote a memoir of his relationship with the Karnofskys titled, Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La., the Year of 1907. In it he describes his discovery that this family was also subject to discrimination by “other white folks’ nationalities who felt that they were better than the Jewish race… I was only seven years old but I could easily see the ungodly treatment that the White Folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for.” Armstrong wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: “how to live—real life and determination.” The influence of Karnofsky is remembered in New Orleans by the Karnofsky Project, a non-profit organization dedicated to accepting donated musical instruments to “put them into the hands of an eager child who could not otherwise take part in a wonderful learning experience.

Armstrong developed his cornet playing seriously in the band of the New Orleans Home for Colored Waifs, where he had been sent multiple times for general delinquency, most notably for a long term after firing his stepfather’s pistol into the air at a New Year’s Eve celebration, as police records confirm. Professor Peter Davis (who frequently appeared at the Home at the request of its administrator, Captain Joseph Jones)[12] instilled discipline in and provided musical training to the otherwise self-taught Armstrong. Eventually, Davis made Armstrong the band leader. The Home band played around New Orleans and the thirteen-year-old Louis began to draw attention by his cornet playing, starting him on a musical career. At fourteen he was released from the Home, living again with his father and new stepmother and then back with his mother and also back to the streets and their temptations. Armstrong got his first dance hall job at Henry Ponce’s where Black Benny became his protector and guide. He hauled coal by day and played his cornet at night.

He played in the city’s frequent brass band parades and listened to older musicians every chance he got, learning from Bunk Johnson, Buddy Petit, Kid Ory, and above all, Joe “King” Oliver, who acted as a mentor and father figure to the young musician. Later, he played in the brass bands and riverboats of New Orleans, and began traveling with the well-regarded band of Fate Marable, which toured on asteamboat up and down the Mississippi River. He described his time with Marable as “going to the University,” since it gave him a much wider experience working with written arrangements.

In 1919, Joe Oliver decided to go north and resigned his position in Kid Ory’s band; Armstrong replaced him. He also became second trumpet for the Tuxedo Brass Band, a society band.

Career

Through all his riverboat experience Armstrong’s musicianship began to mature and expand. At twenty, he could read music and he started to be featured in extended trumpet solos, one of the first jazzmen to do this, injecting his own personality and style into his solo turns. He had learned how to create a unique sound and also started using singing and patter in his performances. In 1922, Armstrong joined the exodus to Chicago, where he had been invited by his mentor, Joe “King” Oliver, to join his Creole Jazz Band and where he could make a sufficient income so that he no longer needed to supplement his music with day labor jobs. It was a boom time in Chicago and though race relations were poor, the “Windy City” was teeming with jobs for black people, who were making good wages in factories and had plenty to spend on entertainment.

Oliver’s band was the best and most influential hot jazz band in Chicago in the early 1920s, at a time when Chicago was the center of the jazz universe. Armstrong lived like a king in Chicago, in his own apartment with his own private bath (his first). Excited as he was to be in Chicago, he began his career-long pastime of writing nostalgic letters to friends in New Orleans. As Armstrong’s reputation grew, he was challenged to “cutting contests” by hornmen trying to displace the new phenom, who could blow two hundred high C’s in a row. Armstrong made his first recordings on the Gennett and Okeh labels (jazz records were starting to boom across the country), including taking some solos and breaks, while playing second cornet in Oliver’s band in 1923. At this time, he met Hoagy Carmichael (with whom he would collaborate later) who was introduced by friend Bix Beiderbecke, who now had his own Chicago band.

Armstrong enjoyed working with Oliver, but Louis’ second wife, pianist Lil Hardin Armstrong, urged him to seek more prominent billing and develop his newer style away from the influence of Oliver. Armstrong took the advice of his wife and left Oliver’s band. For a year Armstrong played in Fletcher Henderson’s band in New York on many recordings. After playing in New York, Armstrong returned to Chicago, playing in large orchestras; there he created his most important early recordings. Lil had her husband play classical music in church concerts to broaden his skill and improve his solo play and she prodded him into wearing more stylish attire to make him look sharp and to better offset his growing girth. Lil’s influence eventually undermined Armstrong’s relationship with his mentor, especially concerning his salary and additional moneys that Oliver held back from Armstrong and other band members. Armstrong and Oliver parted amicably in 1924. Shortly afterward, Armstrong received an invitation to go to New York City to play with the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, the top African-American band of the day. Armstrong switched to the trumpet to blend in better with the other musicians in his section. His influence upon Henderson’s tenor sax soloist, Coleman Hawkins, can be judged by listening to the records made by the band during this period.

Armstrong quickly adapted to the more tightly controlled style of Henderson, playing trumpet and even experimenting with the trombone and the other members quickly took up Armstrong’s emotional, expressive pulse. Soon his act included singing and telling tales of New Orleans characters, especially preachers. The Henderson Orchestra was playing in the best venues for white-only patrons, including the famed Roseland Ballroom, featuring the classy arrangements of Don Redman. Duke Ellington’s orchestra would go to Roseland to catch Armstrong’s performances and young hornmen around town tried in vain to outplay him, splitting their lips in their attempts.

During this time, Armstrong made many recordings on the side, arranged by an old friend from New Orleans, pianist Clarence Williams; these included small jazz band sides with the Williams Blue Five (some of the best pairing Armstrong with one of Armstrong’s few rivals in fiery technique and ideas, Sidney Bechet) and a series of accompaniments with bluessingers, including Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, and Alberta Hunter.

Armstrong returned to Chicago in 1925 due mostly to the urging of his wife, who wanted to pump up Armstrong’s career and income. He was content in New York but later would concede that she was right and that the Henderson Orchestra was limiting his artistic growth. In publicity, much to his chagrin, she billed him as “the World’s Greatest Trumpet Player”. At first, he was actually a member of the Lil Hardin Armstrong Band and working for his wife. He began recording under his own name for Okeh with his famous Hot Five and Hot Seven groups, producing hits such as “Potato Head Blues”, “Muggles”, (a reference to marijuana, for which Armstrong had a lifelong fondness), and “West End Blues”, the music of which set the standard and the agenda for jazz for many years to come.

The group included Kid Ory (trombone), Johnny Dodds (clarinet), Johnny St. Cyr (banjo), wife Lil on piano, and usually no drummer. Armstrong’s bandleading style was easygoing, as St. Cyr noted, “One felt so relaxed working with him, and he was very broad-minded . . . always did his best to feature each individual.” His recordings soon after with pianist Earl “Fatha” Hines (most famously their 1928 Weatherbird duet) and Armstrong’s trumpet introduction to “West End Blues” remain some of the most famous and influential improvisations in jazz history. Armstrong was now free to develop his personal style as he wished, which included a heavy dose of effervescent jive, such as “whip that thing, Miss Lil” and “Mr. Johnny Dodds, Aw, do that clarinet, boy!”

Armstrong also played with Erskine Tate’s Little Symphony, actually a quintet, which played mostly at the Vendome Theatre. They furnished music for silent movies and live shows, including jazz versions of classical music, such as “Madame Butterfly,” which gave Armstrong experience with longer forms of music and with hosting before a large audience. He began to scat sing (improvised vocal jazz using nonsensical words) and was among the first to record it, on “Heebie Jeebies” in 1926. The recording was so popular that the group became the most famous jazz band in the United States, even though they had not performed live to any great extent. Young musicians across the country, black or white, were turned on by Armstrong’s new type of jazz.

After separating from Lil, Armstrong started to play at the Sunset Café for Al Capone’s associate Joe Glaser in the Carroll Dickerson Orchestra, with Earl Hines on piano, which was soon renamed Louis Armstrong and his Stompers, though Hines was the music director and Glaser managed the orchestra. Hines and Armstrong became fast friends and successful collaborators.

Armstrong returned to New York, in 1929, where he played in the pit orchestra of the successful musical Hot Chocolate, an all-black revue written by Andy Razaf and pianist/composer Fats Waller. He also made a cameo appearance as a vocalist, regularly stealing the show with his rendition of “Ain’t Misbehavin'”, his version of the song becoming his biggest selling record to date.

Armstrong started to work at Connie’s Inn in Harlem, chief rival to the Cotton Club, a venue for elaborately staged floor shows, and a front for gangster Dutch Schultz. Armstrong also had considerable success with vocal recordings, including versions of famous songs composed by his old friend Hoagy Carmichael. His 1930s recordings took full advantage of the new RCA ribbon microphone, introduced in 1931, which imparted a characteristic warmth to vocals and immediately became an intrinsic part of the ‘crooning’ sound of artists like Bing Crosby. Armstrong’s famous interpretation of Hoagy Carmichael’s “Stardust” became one of the most successful versions of this song ever recorded, showcasing Armstrong’s unique vocal sound and style and his innovative approach to singing songs that had already become standards.

Armstrong’s radical re-working of Sidney Arodin and Carmichael’s “Lazy River” (recorded in 1931) encapsulated many features of his groundbreaking approach to melody and phrasing. The song begins with a brief trumpet solo, then the main melody is stated by sobbing horns, memorably punctuated by Armstrong’s growling interjections at the end of each bar: “Yeah! …”Uh-huh” …”Sure” … “Way down, way down.” In the first verse, he ignores the notated melody entirely and sings as if playing a trumpet solo, pitching most of the first line on a single note and using strongly syncopated phrasing. In the second stanza he breaks into an almost fully improvised melody, which then evolves into a classic passage of Armstrong “scat singing”.

As with his trumpet playing, Armstrong’s vocal innovations served as a foundation stone for the art of jazz vocal interpretation. The uniquely gritty coloration of his voice became a musical archetype that was much imitated and endlessly impersonated. His scat singing style was enriched by his matchless experience as a trumpet soloist. His resonant, velvety lower-register tone and bubbling cadences on sides such as “Lazy River” exerted a huge influence on younger white singers such as Bing Crosby.

The Great Depression of the early 1930s was especially hard on the jazz scene. The Cotton Club closed in 1936 after a long downward spiral, and many musicians stopped playing altogether as club dates evaporated. Bix Beiderbecke died and Fletcher Henderson’s band broke up. King Oliver made a few records but otherwise struggled. Sidney Bechet became a tailor and Kid Ory returned to New Orleans and raised chickens.

Armstrong moved to Los Angeles in 1930 to seek new opportunities. He played at the New Cotton Club in Los Angeles withLionel Hampton on drums. The band drew the Hollywood crowd, which could still afford a lavish night life, while radio broadcasts from the club connected with younger audiences at home. Bing Crosby and many other celebrities were regulars at the club. In 1931, Armstrong appeared in his first movie, Ex-Flame. Armstrong was convicted of marijuana possession but received a suspended sentence. He returned to Chicago in late 1931 and played in bands more in the Guy Lombardovein and he recorded more standards. When the mob insisted that he get out of town,Armstrong visited New Orleans, got a hero’s welcome and saw old friends. He sponsored a local baseball team known as “Armstrong’s Secret Nine” and had a cigar named after him. But soon he was on the road again and after a tour across the country shadowed by the mob, Armstrong decided to go to Europe to escape.

After returning to the United States, he undertook several exhausting tours. His agent Johnny Collins’ erratic behavior and his own spending ways left Armstrong short of cash. Breach of contract violations plagued him. Finally, he hired Joe Glaser as his new manager, a tough mob-connected wheeler-dealer, who began to straighten out his legal mess, his mob troubles, and his debts. Armstrong also began to experience problems with his fingers and lips, which were aggravated by his unorthodox playing style. As a result he branched out, developing his vocal style and making his first theatrical appearances. He appeared in movies again, including Crosby’s 1936 hit Pennies from Heaven. In 1937, Armstrong substituted for Rudy Vallee on the CBS radio network and became the first African American to host a sponsored, national broadcast.

After spending many years on the road, Armstrong settled permanently in Queens, New York in 1943 in contentment with his fourth wife, Lucille. Although subject to the vicissitudes of Tin Pan Alley and the gangster-ridden music business, as well as anti-black prejudice, he continued to develop his playing. He recorded Hoagy Carmichael’s Rockin’ Chair for Okeh Records.

During the subsequent thirty years, Armstrong played more than three hundred gigs a year. Bookings for big bands tapered off during the 1940s due to changes in public tastes: ballrooms closed, and there was competition from television and from other types of music becoming more popular than big band music. It became impossible under such circumstances to support and finance a 16-piece touring band.

Armstrong and race

Armstrong was largely accepted into white society, both on stage and off, a privilege reserved for very few African-American public figures, and usually those of either exceptional talent or fair skin tone. As his fame grew, so did his access to the finer things in life usually denied to a black man, even a famous one. His renown was such that he dined in the best restaurants and stayed in hotels usually exclusively for whites.

It was a power and privilege that he enjoyed, although he was very careful not to flaunt it with fellow performers of color, and privately, he shared what access that he could with friends and fellow musicians.

That still did not prevent members of the African-American community, particularly in the late 1950s to the early 1970s, from calling him an Uncle Tom, a black-on-black racial epithet for someone who kowtowed to white society at the expense of their own racial identity.

He was criticized for accepting the title of “King of The Zulus” for Mardi Gras in 1949. In the New Orleans African-American community it is an honored role as the head of leading black Carnival Krewe, but bewildering or offensive to outsiders with their traditional costume of grass-skirts and blackface makeup satirizing southern white attitudes.

Some musicians criticized Armstrong for playing in front of segregated audiences, and for not taking a strong enough stand in the civil rights movement.

Billie Holiday countered, however, “Of course Pops toms, but he toms from the heart.”

The few exceptions made it more effective when he did speak out. Armstrong’s criticism of President Eisenhower, calling him “two-faced” and “gutless” because of his inaction during the conflict over school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 made national news.

As a protest, Armstrong canceled a planned tour of the Soviet Union on behalf of the State Department saying “The way they’re treating my people in the South, the government can go to hell” and that he could not represent his government abroad when it was in conflict with its own people. Six days after Armstrong’s comments, Eisenhower ordered Federal troops to Little Rock to escort students into the school.

The FBI kept a file on Armstrong, for his outspokenness about integration.

Legacy

The influence of Armstrong on the development of jazz is virtually immeasurable. Yet, his irrepressible personality both as a performer, and as a public figure later in his career, was so strong that to some it sometimes overshadowed his contributions as a musician and singer.

As a virtuoso trumpet player, Armstrong had a unique tone and an extraordinary talent for melodic improvisation. Through his playing, the trumpet emerged as a solo instrument in jazz and is used widely today. He was a masterful accompanist and ensemble player in addition to his extraordinary skills as a soloist. With his innovations, he raised the bar musically for all who came after him.

Though Armstrong is widely recognized as a pioneer of scat singing, Ethel Waters precedes his scatting on record in the 1930s according to Gary Giddins and others. Billie Holiday and Frank Sinatra are just two singers who were greatly indebted to him. Holiday said that she always wanted Bessie Smith’s ‘big’ sound and Armstrong’s feeling in her singing. Even special musicians like Duke Ellington have praised Armstrong through strong testimonials. Duke Ellington said, “If anybody was a master, it was Louis Armstrong.” In 1950, Bing Crosby, the most successful vocalist of the first half of the 20th century, said, “He is the beginning and the end of music in America.”

In the summer of 2001, in commemoration of the centennial of Armstrong’s birth, New Orleans’s main airport was renamedLouis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport.

In 2002, the Louis Armstrong’s Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings (1925–1928) are preserved in the United States National Recording Registry, a registry of recordings selected yearly by the National Recording Preservation Board for preservation in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress.

The US Open tennis tournament’s former main stadium was named Louis Armstrong Stadium in honor of Armstrong who had lived a few blocks from the site.

Today, there are many bands worldwide dedicated to preserving and honoring the music and style of Satchmo, including the Louis Armstrong Society located in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Armstrong